Monday, April 5, 2010

Electric Steel Making Process

Super-refined steels, and high alloyed superrefined steels in particular, are produced in electric furnaces.

Converter and SM steels are used as charge in the electric furnace; these are further and mixed with the desired alloying elements. The iron alloys so produced contain chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, manganese, tantanium, titanium, aluminum, boron, cobalt, nickel, zirbonium, silicon, phosphorus and carbon in the desired proportion.

The electric process utilizes the heating of electric current. This form of heat generation does not produce impurities since it does not require a flame which give off gas or sulphur. High grade scrap and prerelined steel are used as the starting materials.

The arch furnace has two or three carbon electrodes. When it is switched on, as arc jumps from the carbon rods to the melting stock. Heating is rapid and the temperature can be easily controlled.

Melting temperature of up to 3800 oC can be reached, which makes it possible to produce alloys with tungsten (melting point 3370 oC) and molybdenum (melting point 2600 oC). this why high alloy steels, such as high speed steels, high temperature resistant steels and rust and acid resistant steels are produced in the arc furnace. Because of the method by which they are produced; they are also called electric furnace steels.

In the induction furnace, alternating current flows through a coil around the melting crucible. This gives rise to eddy currents in the melting stock, which heat the bath. The induction furnace is used to produce high alloyed steel from alloyed cast iron and nodular graphite cast iron.

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